Pal is a common surname found in India and Bangladesh. It is traditionally believed that 'Pal' originated from Sanskrit 'Pala' meaning protector or keeper. Pal or Paul surname is found in Bengal among Bengali Kayasthas. The Pardhi, a hunter community of Maharashtra is also known as Pal. The saint Gwalipa told Suraj Sen, the ruler of Gwalior to adopt the surname Pal, which remain prevalent up to eighty three descendants of Suraj Sen.
The Ahirs in Central India use Pal as surname. Also, Pal was the popular surname among the Parmar Rajput rulers of the Garhwal. Pal is a surname of Thakuri peoples of Nepal. In Punjab and other states, Pal is often used as a middle name followed by Singh. The rulers of Kullu held the surname of Pal up to about 15th century A. In Bengalduring the reign of the Gupta Empire beginning in the 4th century AD, when systematic and large-scale colonization by Aryan Kayasthas and Brahmins first took place, Kayasthas were brought over by the Guptas to help manage the affairs of state.
Tej Ram Sharma, an Indian historian, says that. The names of brahmanas occurring in our inscriptions sometimes end in a non-brahmanic cognomen such as Bhatta, Datta and Kunda, etc. Noticing brahmanic names with a large number of modern Bengali Kayastha cognomens in several early epigraphs discovered in Bengal, some scholars have suggested that there is a considerable brahmana element in the present day Kayastha community of Bengal.
Originally the professions of Kayastha scribe and Vaidya physician were not restricted and could be followed by people of different varnas including the brahmanas. So there is every probability that a number of brahmana families were mixed up with members of other varnas in forming the present Kayastha and Vaidya communities of Bengal. Andre Wink states. Abu al-Fazldescribes these kings the Pal Kings as Kayastha. Bengal, in effect, became the land of the Kayasthas, having been ruled by the Kayasthas for about years.
Sanskrit sources such as Rajtarangini however do not yet regard Kayastha as a caste in any sense but as a category of "officials" or "scribes". Between the fifth or sixth centuries when we first hear of them and the eleventh-twelfth centuries, its component elements were putative Kshatriyas and, for the larger majority Brahminswho either retained their caste identity or became Buddhists while laying down the sacred thread.
The Kayasthas obtained aspect of a caste perhaps under the Senas. Accordind to Radhey Shyam Chourasia, an Indian historian, the Palas do not trace their origin to any ancient hero. The dynasty is so called because the names of all kings had the termination - Pala. The family has no illustrious ancestry. The opinion of Guptajit Pathak, another historian, is that the Palas of Kamarupa, who had the same surname as the Palas of Bengal and Bihar Gaura and Magadha"were perhaps of non-Aryan origin".
Several kings of Pala dynasty were Buddhists. According to the Khalimpur Plate of Dharmapala, Gopala I, the founder of the dynasty, "was the son of a warrior Vapyata and the grandson of a highly educated Dayitavishnu". Unlike other contemporary dynasties, the Palas "do not claim descent from any mythological figure or epic hero".
Bagchi suggests that "the non-mention of caste may be a reason that the Palas were Buddhists and they were not supposed to mention their caste like the Brahmanical ruling dynasties", though they performed the duties and functions of Kshatriyas for about four centuries.
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Personal and Geographical Names in the Gupta Empire. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. University of California Press. Human Migration: A Social Phenomenon.Simply start with yourself and we'll do the searching for you. View Census Data for Castelo. View Census data for Castelo Data not to scale. There are 2, census records available for the last name Castelo. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Castelo census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.
There are 1, immigration records available for the last name Castelo. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure. There are military records available for the last name Castelo. For the veterans among your Castelo ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.
Ready to discover your family story? First Name. Last Name. Gender Male. You can see how Castelo families moved over time by selecting different census years. The most Castelo families were found in the USA in In there were 2 Castelo families living in New York.
New York had the highest population of Castelo families in Use census records and voter lists to see where families with the Castelo surname lived. Within census records, you can often find information like name of household members, ages, birthplaces, residences, and occupations.
United States England Canada. Top Male Occupations in Laborer. Top Female Occupations in File Clerk. Census Record There are 2, census records available for the last name Castelo. Search 's US census records for Castelo.
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Explore Your Tree.Surname : palaka Gotram: pydipala U missed itwe stay in kakinada. Please add surname. We hail from Visakhapatnam. Surname-gona gotram-paidipalla. Please add this. Actually marisetti,talatam is our surnames we both gothras are chettipala gothram. And puppala surname is janakula gotram also. Pages Home. Wednesday, December 31, Kapu Caste Surnames.
Alphabet :B. Alphabet :D. Alphabet :E. Alphabet :G. Alphabet :H. Alphabet :I. Alphabet :J. Alphabet :K. Alphabet :L. Alphabet :M. Alphabet :N.
Andhra Brahmins Migrated from Tamil Nadu? Surnames
Alphabet :O. Alphabet :P. Alphabet :S. Alphabet :T. Alphabet :U. Alphabet :V. Alphabet :Y. Labels: Kapu caste surnames. Unknown January 17, at AM. Unknown September 11, at AM. Unknown September 13, at AM. Unknown September 20, at AM. Unknown April 13, at PM. Unknown October 31, at AM. Unknown January 26, at AM. Mallepoolamadhu Royal's September 24, at PM.In the fourfold division of Indian society, the innumerable Bania subcastes, such as the Agarwalaare classed as members of the Vaishyaor commoner, class.
In religious affiliation they are generally Vaishnavas worshippers of the Hindu god Vishnu or Jainas and tend to be strict vegetarians, teetotallers, and orthodox in observing ceremonial purity.
Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Bania Indian caste. See Article History. This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy TikkanenCorrections Manager. Caste, any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India.
History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. External Websites Indianetzone - Bania Community.Islamic casteany of the units of social stratification that developed among Muslims in India and Pakistan as a result of the proximity of Hindu culture.
Most of the South Asian Muslims were recruited from the Hindu population; despite the egalitarian tenets of Islamthe Muslim converts persisted in their Hindu social habits. Hindus, in turn, accommodated the Muslim ruling class by giving it a status of its own.
These converts of Hinduism observe endogamy in a manner close to that of their Hindu counterparts. Two of the principal indexes of Hindu caste, commensality and endogamy principles governing eating and marital arrangementsdo not appear as strongly in Islamic castes. The principle of endogamy is altered by the Muslim preference of marriage within very narrow limits e.
Islamic caste. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Islamic caste Indian society. See Article History.
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Caste, any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India.
Indian Christian society is divided into groups geographically and according to denomination, but the overriding…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address.Aguris are a cultivating and trading caste. Citing a work by Mukundaram. McLane says that the Aguri were present "almost certainly" before the arrival of the Khatris in Burdwan. Manua Hindu religious text, says Ugra meaning aggressive was born to a Shudra girl by a Kshatriya father.
This mixed origin meant that the community was considered to have an ambivalent position in the Hindu varna systemalthough by the s they were claiming to be pure Kshatriya. Around the beginning of the 20th century, the Aguri were among the agricultural communities that still predominantly adhered to the custom of paying a bride price at the time of marriage, although some more prosperous members among them were already adopting the increasingly common alternative of paying a dowry.
This minority believed that bride price was deprecated by higher castes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kolkata: Presidency Library. Land, caste, and politics in Indian states.Kautilya Pandit Exclusive Interview - Google Boy On Astronomy, His English Accent & More
Authors Guild Publications. Oxford University Press. Anthropological Survey of India.
Cambridge University Press. Society In India Reprinted ed. Popular Prakashan.
Bengali Hindus. Babu Bangal Bhadralok Ghoti. Bhagavad Gita Chandi Panchali Matuasmritokotha. Brahmo Kartabhaja Shaiva Shakta Vaishnava. Rabindra Sangeet Shyama Sangeet Kirtan. Gaudiya Nritya Rabindra Nritya Natya. Dhokra Sholapith. Bengali Hindu mythology and culture Bengali Hindu diaspora. Hidden categories: CS1 Bengali-language sources bn.The origins of the caste system in India and Nepal are not fully known, but castes seem to have originated more than 2, years ago.
Under this system, which is associated with Hinduism, people were categorized by their occupations. Although originally caste depended upon a person's work, it soon became hereditary. Each person was born into an unalterable social status. The four primary castes are Brahminthe priests; Kshatriyawarriors and nobility; Vaisyafarmers, traders, and artisans; and Shudratenant farmers and servants.
Some people were born outside of and below the caste system; they were called "untouchables" or Dalits —"the crushed ones. Reincarnation is the process by which a soul is reborn into a new material form after each life; it is one of the central features of the Hindu cosmology.
Souls can move not only among different levels of human society but also into other animals. This belief is thought to be one of the primary reasons for the vegetarianism of many Hindus.
Within a single lifetime, people in India historically had little social mobility. They had to strive for virtue during their present lives in order to attain a higher station their next time around. In this system, a particular soul's new form depends upon the virtuousness of its previous behavior.
Thus, a truly virtuous person from the Shudra caste could be rewarded with rebirth as a Brahmin in his or her next life.
Practices associated with caste varied through time and across India, but all shared some common features. The three key areas of life historically dominated by caste were marriage, meals, and religious worship. Marriage across caste lines was strictly forbidden. Most people even married within their own sub-caste or jati. At mealtimes, anyone could accept food from the hands of a Brahminbut a Brahmin would be polluted if he or she took certain types of food from a lower caste person.
At the other extreme, if an untouchable dared to draw water from a public well, he or she polluted the water, and nobody else could use it.
In religious worship, Brahmins, as the priestly class, presided over rituals and services including preparation for festivals and holidays, as well as marriages and funerals. The Kshatriya and Vaisya castes had full rights to worship, but in some places, Shudras the servant caste were not allowed to offer sacrifices to the gods. Untouchables were barred entirely from temples, and sometimes they were not even allowed to set foot on temple grounds.
If the shadow of an untouchable touched a Brahmin, the Brahmin would be polluted, so untouchables had to lay face-down at a distance when a Brahmin passed. Although the early Vedic sources name four primary castes, there were, in fact, thousands of castes, sub-castes, and communities within Indian society. Castes or sub-castes besides the four mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita include such groups as the Bhumihar or landowners, Kayastha or scribes, and the Rajput, a northern sector of the Kshatriya or warrior caste.
Some castes arose from very specific occupations, such as the Garudi—snake charmers—or the Sonjhari, who collected gold from river beds. People who violated social norms could be punished by being made "untouchables. People deemed untouchable, in addition to their descendants, were condemned and completely outside of the caste system.
Untouchables were considered so impure that any contact with them by a caste member would contaminate that member. The polluted person would have to bathe and wash his or her clothing immediately. The untouchables historically did work that no one else would do, like scavenging animal carcasses, leather-work, or killing rats and other pests.
Untouchables could not eat in the same room as caste members and could not be cremated when they died. Curiously, non-Hindu populations in India sometimes organized themselves into castes as well.
After the introduction of Islam in the subcontinent, for example, Muslims were divided into classes such as the Sayed, Sheikh, Mughal, Pathan, and Qureshi. These castes are drawn from several sources: The Mughal and Pathan are ethnic groups, roughly speaking, while the Qureshi name comes from the Prophet Muhammad's clan in Mecca.
Small numbers of Indians were Christian from around 50 CE onward. Christianity expanded in India after the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century. Many Christian Indians continued to observe caste distinctions, however.